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Volume-3, Issue-3 April 18, 2016
06
Volume-3, Issue-3 April 18, 2016

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S. No

Volume-3 Issue-3, April 2016, ISSN: 2347-6389 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.

1.

Authors:

P. Anitha, P. Sakthivel

Paper Title:

Microwave Assisted Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Citrullus Lanatus Leaf Extract and Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity Against Human Blood Cells

Abstract:  The use of engineered nanomaterials has increased as a result of their positive impact on many sectors of the economy, including agriculture. In the current study, the plant extract of Citrullus Lanatusis used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The plant extract is mixed with AgNO3, and then it is incubated. The extract is kept in microwave oven for exposure of heat, then it is dried and powdered. The synthesized dried powder is confirmed as nanoparticles by color transformation. The characterization of silver nanoparticles was studied by UV–Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD& TEM. The silver nanoparticles synthesized were generally found in size 1-100 nm. The average size of synthesized silver nanoparticles is found to be 15.98 nm using XRD data by Scherrer’s formula, which is approximately similar as the size obtained in TEM Analysis 16.32 nm. In totality, the AgNPs prepared are safe to be discharged in the environment and possibly utilized in processes of pollution remediation. AgNPs may also be efficiently utilized in Anti-inflammatory activity of Pharmaceutical research to obtain better result of plant as shown by our study. The Anti-inflammatory activity of silver nanoparticles was tested on human blood cells which confirms that the plant mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles have a significant Anti-inflammatory effect on human blood cells.

Keywords:
 Silver Nanoparticles, UV–Vis Spectroscopy, FTIR, TEM, XRD, Anti-Inflammatory, Human Blood Cells, etc.


References:

1.         Nowack, “Nanosilver revisited downstream”, Science, vol. 330, pp. 1054-1055, 2010.
2.         R. Kaegi, B. Sinnet, S. Zuleeg, H. Hagendorfer, E. Mueller, R. Vonbank,et al., “Release of silver nanoparticles from outdoor facades’,Environ. Pollut.,vol. 158, no. 9, pp. 2900-2905, 2010.

3.         Y.S. El-Temsah, E.J. Joner, “Impact of Fe and Ag nanoparticles on seed germination and differences in bioavailability during exposure in aqueous suspension and soil”, Environ. Toxicol.,vol. 27, pp. 42-49, 2012.

4.         Song JY, Kim BS. “Rapid biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant leaf extract”. Bioprocess Biosyst (2009).

5.         Bar H, Bhui DK, Gobinda SP, Sarkar PM, Pyne S, Misra A. “Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of Jatrophacurcas”. Physicochem Eng Aspects
(2009).

6.         Harekrishna Bar, D.K.B., Gobindasahoo P, priyankaSarkar, Sankar PD., “Green synthesis of silvernanoparticles using latex of Jatrophacurcas” (2009).

7.         ShaoguiGuo, Jianguo Zhang, Honghe Sun, Jerome Salseet al., The draft genome of watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions. Nature Genetics. 2013; 45:51–58.

8.         Krishnaraj C, Jagan EG, Rajasekar S, Selvakumar P, Kalaichelvan PT, Mohan N (2010) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acalyphaindica leaf extracts and its antibacterial activity against water borne pathogens. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 76:50–56.

9.         Shukla VK, Pandey S, Pandey AC (2010) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using neem leaf (Azadirachtaindica) extract. In: Proceedings of International Conference On Advanced Nanomaterials And Nanotechnology. ICANN2009, Guwahati, Assam (India). 9–11 December 2009.

10.      Namratha N, Monica PV (2013) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Azadirachtaindica (Neem) extract and usage in water purification. Asian J Pharm Tech 3:170–174.

11.      Lalitha A, Subbaiya R, Ponmurugan P (2013) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from leaf extract Azhadirachtaindica and to study its anti-bacterial and antioxidant property. Int J CurrMicrobiol App Sci 2:228–235.

12.      Singhal G, Bhavesh R, Kasariya K, Sharma AR, Singh RP (2011) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaf extract and screening its antimicrobial activity. J Nanoparticle Res 13:2981–2988.

13.      Philip D, Unni C (2011) Extra cellular biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Krishna tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf. Phys E 43:1318–1322.


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2.

Authors:

Abdelzaher E. A. Mostafa, Waleed M.F. Tawhed, Mohamed R. Elshahat

Paper Title:

Performance Assessment of Asphalt Pavement mix Modified by Nano-Silica and Nano-Clay

Abstract: In recent years, Nano Technology started to be utilized in many civil engineering applications and one emphasis was in highway pavements. Nano-materials are used to improve the quality and behavior of bitumen in different conditions. This research represents the results obtained from an experimental program designed to study the improvement of asphalt mix characteristics when using nano-materials. In this study, the nano-materials used were nano-silica, kaolinite nano-clay, and montmorlinite nano-clay by percents of (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9%) by weight of bitumen. Rheological properties of nano-modified bitumen namely; penetration, softening, flash point, and viscosity were studied. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of asphalt mixes constructed using nano-modified bitumen were studied, namely; stability, flow, compression stress, modulus of elasticity, and indirect tensile strength. From the results, it was observed that using nano-materials improve the rheological properties of bitumen in the form of decrease in penetration by 26% and increase in softening, flash point, and viscosity by 29%, 8%, and 6% respectively. In addition, nano-modified bitumen improves the mechanical properties of asphalt mix in the form of increase in stability, compressive strength, and indirect tensile strength by 37%, 40%, and 90%. Essentially, the recommended optimum percentages of nano -modified bitumen used in asphalt mix are 7% nano-silica, 9% kaolinite nano-clay, and 9% montmorlinite nano-clay.

Keywords:
  Hot Asphalt Mix; Nano-Materials; Nano-Silica; Nano-Clay


References:
1.      Lewandowski. L.H., (1994). “Polymer Modification of Paving Asphalt Binders”. Rubber Chemistry and Technology, 67(3): 447, July-August. 
2.      Shen, J.A., (2011). “Pavement Performance of Asphalt and Asphalt Concrete”, China Communication Press, Beijing.

3.      Eurobitume Asphalt Institute, (2011). “The bitumen industry - A global perspective (2nd Edition)”. Lexington, Kentucky: Asphalt Institute; Brussels, Belgium.

4.      Becker, Y., Méndez, M.P., and Rodríguez, Y., (2001). “Polymer modified asphalt”. Vision Tecnologica; 9(1):39-50.

5.      Zhu, J., Birgisson, B., and Kringos, N. (2014). “Polymer modification of bitumen: Advances and challenges”. European Polymer Journal, 54: 18-38 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.Vol. 02, No. 005.

6.      Yu J.u., Wang, L., Zeng, X., Wu, S.p., and Li, B., (2007a). “Effect of Montmorillonite on Properties of Styrene–Butadiene– Styrene Copolymer Modified Bitumen”. Polym Eng Sci, Vol. 47, No. 9, Pp. 1289-1295, 2007.

7.      Yu, J.u., Zeng, X., Wu, S.p., and Li, B., (2007b). “Preparation and Properties of Montmorillonite Modified Asphalts”. J Wuh Uni Technol , Vol. 29, No. 9, Pp. 65-67.

8.      Yu, J.u., Zeng, X., Wu, S.p., and Li, B., (2007b). “Preparation and Properties of Montmorillonite Modified Asphalts”. Mater Sci Eng A, Vol. 447, No. 1-2, Pp. 233-238.

9.      Mahmoud, A.H., (2012). “Hot Mix Asphalt Enhancement by Nanoclay Additives”, Civil Engineering Departument, Faculty of Engineering, El-Minia University, El-Minia, Egypt. Minia Journal of Engineering and Technology, (MJET), Vol. 31, No 2, July.

10.   Muniandy, R., Lamya, M.J., Robiah B., Yunus, Hasham, S., and Aburkaba, E., (2013). “Effect of Organic Montmorillonite Nanoclay Concentration on The Physical And Rheological Properties of Asphalt Binder”, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7(9): 429-437, ISSN 1991-8178

11.   Zafari, F., Rahi, M., Moshtagh, N., and Nazockdast, H., (2014). “The Improvement of Bitumen Properties by Adding NanoSilica”. Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture  (SCEA), Vol 3.

12.   Mostafa, A.E., (2016). “Examining the Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt Using Nano- Materials” International Organization of Scientific Research (IOSRJEN) ISSN(e): 2250-3021, Volume-06, Issue-02, pp 25-34.


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3.

Authors:

Abowei M. F. N, Goodhead, T. O, Wami, E. N

Paper Title:

Heat Exchanger Rating Models for Isothermal CSTR SO3 Hydration using Vanadium Catalyst

Abstract:  This work deals with the development of design models for heat exchanger rating in catalytic sulphur trioxide hydration process at isothermal condition exploiting the Abowei and Goodhead derived continuous adsorption tower (CAST) heat generation per unit volume equations at constant temperature.  Shell and Tube heat exchanger is invoked for this studies resulting to novel design equations which were stochastically examined and found to be capable of simulating the rating performance dimensions as a function of kinetic parameters. The rating performance models were further generalized to inculcate fractional conversion functionality. The novel design models were simulation to evaluate the overall heat transfer coefficient, mass flow rate of cooling fluid, tube side cross flow area and tube side film coefficient using Matlab R2007B within the operational limits of conversion degree at constant temperature. The heat exchanger is used for the removal of heat generated per reactor unit volume utilizing water as cooling fluid, enters the shell side at 25oC flowing counter currently to the tube side at exit temperature of 85oC in order to maintaining 97oC isothermal condition. The configuration of the exchanger is U–tube type and is three (3) shell and six (6) tube passes. The results of the rating dimensions showed a dependable relationship with fractional conversion at constant temperature for various reactor radius and number of tubes.

Keywords: 
   CAST, heat exchanger Rating, isothermal, hydration, sulphur trioxide.


References:

1.         G. T. Austin, “Shreve’s Chemical Process Industrial,” in Reaction Rates in Catalytic Cracking of Petroleum, Industrial Engineering Chemistry. 5th ed. Vol. 45 (6), Blanding, F. H, Ed. New York:  McGraw-Hill, 1984, pp. 1186-1197.
2.         Duecker and West, “Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid,” New York: Reinhold, 1975.

3.         K. C. Faith, “Industrial Chemistry,” 3rd ed, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1965. pp. 747-755

4.         S. Foust, et al., “Principles of Unit Operations,” 1st ed. Pennsylvania: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1960. pp. 223 – 225.

5.         W.L. Nelson, “Petroleum Refinery Engineering, 4th Edition,” Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1985. pp 557.

6.         E. E. Ludwig, “Applied Process Design for Chemical & Petrochemical Plants,” Vol. 3, Texas: Gulf Publishing Company, 1965.  pp 69 and 146.

7.         J.P. Homan, “Heat Transfer,” 5th ed, Tokyo: McGraw-Hill Kogakusha Ltd, 1981. pp. 25.

8.         D.Q. Kern, “Process Heat Transfer,” Tokyo: McGraw-Hill, Kogakusha Ltd, 1950. Pp 63, 129 and 711.

9.         J.F. Richardson, and J.M. Coulson, “Chemical Engineering, Vol.1, 5th ed, Oxford: Butherworth-Heinemann, 1998. pp 350.

10.      J.R. Simonson, “Engineering Heat Transfer,” Cambridge: The Macmillan Press Ltd, 1978. pp. 3.

11.      G.M. York Fair, J.C. Geyer, and D.A. Oken, “Water Purification and Waste water Treatment, and Disposal,” vol. 2, Water and waste water Engineering, New York:
Wiley, 1968.

12.      T.O. Goodhead and M.F.N. Abowei, “Modelling of Semi Batch Reactor Adsorption Tower for Sulphur Trioxide Hydration using Vanadium Catalyst,” International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, Volume 5, Issue 8, September 2014.

13.      M.F.N. Abowei, and T.O. Goodhead, “Isothermal  Continuous Stirred Adsorption Tower (CSAT) for Vanadium Catalyst Based Sulphur Trrioxide Hydration Process,” International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology; Vol. 3(10) October, 2014.  pp 45-60

14.      T.O. Goodhead and M.F.N. Abowei, “Design of Isothermal Plug Flow Reactor Adsorption Tower for Sulphur Trioxide Hydration using Vanadium Catalyst,” International Journal of Innovative Science and Modern Engineering (IJISME), Volume 2, Issue 9, October 2014,  pp 9-16.

15.      T. O. Goodhead and M.F.N Abowei, “Modelling of None-isothermal Plug Flow Reactor Adsorption for Sulphur Trioxide Hydration Using Vanadium Catalyst,” International Journal Technology Enhancement and Emerging Engineering Research (IJTEEE), Volume 2 Issue 9, October 2014.

16.      T. O. Goodhead and M.F.N. Abowei, “Modelling of Non-Isothermal CSTAT for Sulphur Trioxide Hydration using Vanadium Catalyst,” International Journal of Engineering and Technology UK, Volume 4, issue 9, October, 2014. pp1-27.

17.      Danner and Daubert, “Manual for Predicting Chemical Process Design Data”, ALCHE, New York, 1983

18.      O. Levenspiel, “Chemical Reaction Engineering,” 3rd ed, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999.

19.      N. V. Dewachtere, F. Santaella and G.F. Froment, “Application of a single event kinetics Model in the simulation of an industrial Riser Reactor for the catalytic
Cracking of Vacuum Gas Oil”, Chemical Engineering Science, 54, 1999. pp 365-366.

20.      J.F. Richardson, and J.M. Coulson, “Chemical Engineering,” 3rd ed, Vol. 1, New York: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1996.  pp. 167 – 265.

21.      R. Mukherjee, “Effective Design Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers,” Chemical Engineering Progress, Vol. 2, Feb, 1998.  pp 25.

22.      Sinnott, R.K. Coulson, J.M. and J.F. Richardson, “Chemical Engineering,” Vol.6, 2nd ed, Oxford: Butherworth- Heinemann, 1998.  pp. 223-618.

23.      Isachenkoiv, “Heat Transfer,” Moscow: MIR publisher, 1977. Pp 86-87.

24.      L.C. Thomas, “Chemical Engineering,” New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 1992. pp. 1–12.

25.      R.H. Perry and D.W. Green, “Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook,” 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997.  Pp 11–36.

26.      C.J. Geankoplis, “Transport processes and separation process principles (includes unit operations)” 4th ed. Asoke K. Ghosh, Prentice-hall of India Private Limited, M-97, 2003. Pp. 291-296.

27.      C.A. Melo and F. V. Sauvanaud, “Kinetic and Decay Cracking Model for a Micordowner Unit Applied Catalysis, General, 287 (1), 2005. pp 34-36.

28.      R. K. Sinnott, J. M. Coulson, and Richardson, J. F. Chemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering Design, Volume 6, Fourth Edition, Published by Elsevier India, 1015 pages, 2005.


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4.

Authors:

Bekkuzhina S.S, Botayeva M., Zhamekova A, Ospankulova G, K.R. Urazaliyev

Paper Title:

Possibilities of use of Gamete Breeding for Selecting of Plants Resistant to Water Deficiency

Abstract:  Creating a selective pressure during growth of the male gametophyte and selection microspores under selective conditions with obligatory receipt of haploid structures of constant form , that is, doubled haploid lines with given properties is one of the tasks of biotechnology and the goal of our research. Using ABA when pollen haploid breeding the most defensible way since this hormone plays a key role in the response to water stress . Pollen haploid breeding using ABA efficient way also because ABA is a fertility control.

Keywords:
 haploid, doubled haploids, anther culture, stress, microspores, sporophyte, gametophyte, osmotic tolerance, selection.


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