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Volume-2, Issue-1 December 18, 2014
20
Volume-2, Issue-1 December 18, 2014

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S. No

Volume-2 Issue-1, December 2014, ISSN: 2347-6389 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.

1.

Authors:

Jamal O. Sameer, Omar S. Zaroog, Samer F., Abdulbasit Abdullah

Paper Title:

A Numerical Comparison between Aluminuim Alloy and Mild Steel in Order to Enhance the Energy Absorption Capacity of the Thin Walled Tubes

Abstract: The current study describes and comparison between the behavior of the thin wall rectangular tube cross- sections modeled by mild steel and aluminum alloy, subjected to dynamic compression load.  We examine the reaction of the tube of various thicknesses and materials (mild steel A36 and aluminium alloy AA6060), subjected to direct and oblique loading. The study investigates the behavior of the rectangular tube, with various weights of various hollow aluminum foam. The choice of the best design of tube parameter is based on the method called multi criteria decision making (MCDM). The examined criterions are the peak force, crush force efficiency (CFE), how also the energy absorption in case of oblique and direct load. The optimal choice of the rectangular tube is the aluminium rectangular profile of 3.4 mm thickness and hollow aluminium foam type (E= 0.652Kg), under oblique load, with enhancement of the energy absorption of 11.2 %, an improvement of CFE by 42.3%, decrease of peak force by 30.7 %. In case the direct load, the enhancement of the energy absorption of 7.2 %, an improvement of CFE by 88%, decrease of peak force by 39.7 %. The aim of using thinner tube and hollow aluminium foam is to keep the final design the lowest possible weight,  to improve the CFE and the energy absorber capacities in order to attain higher passenger safety.

Keywords:
Aluminum alloy, mild steel, dynamic compression, thin wall, energy absorption, aluminum foam.


References:

1.        Abramowicz, W., & Wierzbicki, T. (1988). Axial crushing of foam-filled columns. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 30(3), 263-271.‏
2.        Abramowicz, W., & Wierzbicki, T. (1989). Axial crushing of multicorner sheet metal columns. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 56(1), 113-120.‏

3.        Aktay, L., Toksoy, A. K., & Güden, M. (2006). Quasi-static axial crushing of extruded polystyrene foam-filled thin-walled aluminum tubes: experimental and numerical analysis. Materials & design, 27(7), 556-565.‏

4.        Chen, W., & Wierzbicki, T. (2001). Relative merits of single-cell, multi-cell and foam-filled thin-walled structures in energy absorption. Thin-Walled Structures,39(4), 287-306.‏

5.        Hanssen, A. G., Hopperstad, O. S., Langseth, M., & Ilstad, H. (2002). Validation of constitutive models applicable to aluminium foams. International journal of mechanical sciences, 44(2), 359-406.‏

6.        Kavi, H., Toksoy, A. K., & Guden, M. (2006). Predicting energy absorption in a foam-filled thin-walled aluminum tube based on experimentally determined strengthening coefficient. Materials & design, 27(4), 263-269.‏

7.        Kim, H. S. (2002). New extruded multi-cell aluminum profile for maximum crash energy absorption and weight efficiency. Thin-Walled Structures, 40(4), 311-327.‏

8.        Santosa, S., & Wierzbicki, T. (1999). Effect of an ultralight metal filler on the bending collapse behavior of thin-walled prismatic columns. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 41(8), 995-1019.‏

9.        Seitzberger, M., Rammerstorfer, F. G., Gradinger, R., Degischer, H. P., Blaimschein, M., & Walch, C. (2000). Experimental studies on the quasi-static axial crushing of steel columns filled with aluminium foam. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 37(30), 4125-4147.‏

10.     Hanssen, A. G., Langseth, M., & Hopperstad, O. S. (1999). Static crushing of square aluminium extrusions with aluminium foam filler. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 41(8), 967-993.‏

11.     Hanssen, A. G., Hopperstad, O. S., & Langseth, M. (2000). Bending of square aluminium extrusions with aluminium foam filler. Acta Mechanica, 142(1-4), 13-31.‏

12.     Hanssen, A. G., Langseth, M., & Hopperstad, O. S. (2000). Static and dynamic crushing of square aluminium extrusions with aluminium foam filler.International Journal of Impact Engineering, 24(4), 347-383.‏

13.     Hanssen, A. G., Hopperstad, O. S., & Langseth, M. (2001). Design of aluminium foam-filled crash boxes of square and circular cross-sections.International Journal of Crashworthiness, 6(2), 177-188.‏

14.     Hanssen, A. G., Langseth, M., & Hopperstad, O. S. (2001). Optimum design for energy absorption of square aluminium columns with aluminium foam filler.International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 43(1), 153-176.‏

15.     Song, H. W., Fan, Z. J., Yu, G., Wang, Q. C., & Tobota, A. (2005). Partition energy absorption of axially crushed aluminum foam-filled hat sections.International Journal of Solids and Structures, 42(9), 2575-2600.‏

16.     Chen, W. (2001). Optimisation for minimum weight of foam-filled tubes under large twisting rotation. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 6(2), 223-242.‏

17.     Chen, W., Wierzbicki, T., & Santosa, S. (2002). Bending collapse of thin-walled beams with ultralight filler: numerical simulation and weight optimization. Acta mechanica, 153(3-4), 183-206.‏

18.     Nariman-Zadeh, N., Darvizeh, A., & Jamali, A. (2006). Pareto optimization of energy absorption of square aluminium columns using multi-objective genetic algorithms. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 220(2), 213-224.‏

19.     Zarei, H. R., & Kröger, M. (2007). Crashworthiness optimization of empty and filled aluminum crash boxes. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 12(3), 255-264.‏

20.     Zarei, H., & Kröger, M. (2008). Optimum honeycomb filled crash absorber design. Materials & Design, 29(1), 193-204.‏

21.     F. Tarlochan and Samer F. (2013). Design of thin wall structures for energy absorption applications: design for crash injuries mitigation using magnesium alloy. IJRET. 2 – (07)- 2319-1163.

22.     Cheng, Q., Altenhof, W., & Li, L. (2006). Experimental investigations of the crush behavior of AA6061-T6 aluminum square tubes with different types of through-hole discontinuities. Thin-walled structures, 44 (4), 441-454.‏

23.     Harte, A. M., Fleck, N. A., & Ashby, M. F. (2000). Energy absorption of foam-filled circular tubes with braided composite walls. European Journal of Mechanics-A/Solids, 19 (1), 31-50.‏

24.     Olabi, A. G., Morris, E., Hashmi, M. S. J., & Gilchrist, M. D. (2008). Optimized design of nested circular tube energy absorbers under lateral impact loading. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 50 (1), 104-116.‏

25.     Ahmad, Z., & Thambiratnam, D. P. (2009). Dynamic computer simulation and energy absorption of foam-filled conical tubes under axial impact loading. Computers & Structures, 87 (3), 186-197.‏

26.     Nagel, G. (2005). Impact and energy absorption of straight and tapered rectangular tubes (Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology).‏

27.     Nagel, G. M., & Thambiratnam, D. P. (2005). Computer simulation and energy absorption of tapered thin-walled rectangular tubes. Thin-Walled Structures, 43 (8), 1225-1242.‏ ‏

28.     Witteman, W. J. (1999). Improved vehicle crashworthiness design by control of the energy absorption for different collision situations: proefschrift. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.‏

29.     Dehghan-Manshadi, B., Mahmudi, H., Abedian, A., & Mahmudi, R. (2007). A novel method for materials selection in mechanical design: combination of non-linear normalization and a modified digital logic method. Materials & design,28(1), 8-15.‏

30.     Olabi, A. G., Morris, E., Hashmi, M. S. J., & Gilchrist, M. D. (2008). Optimised design of nested circular tube energy absorbers under lateral impact loading.International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 50(1), 104-116.‏

31.     Witteman, W. J. (1999). Improved vehicle crashworthiness design by control of the energy absorption for different collision situations: proefschrift. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.‏

32.     Ahmad, Z., & Thambiratnam, D. P. (2009). Dynamic computer simulation and energy absorption of foam-filled conical tubes under axial impact loading.Computers & Structures, 87(3), 186-197.‏

33.     Duan, C. Z., Dou, T., Cai, Y. J., & Li, Y. Y. (2011). Finite element simulation and experiment of chip formation process during high speed machining of AISI 1045 hardened steel. AMAE International Journal on Production and Industrial Engineering, 2(1).‏

34.     Dean, J., Dunleavy, C. S., Brown, P. M., & Clyne, T. W. (2009). Energy absorption during projectile perforation of thin steel plates and the kinetic energy of ejected fragments. International journal of impact engineering, 36(10), 1250-1258.‏

35.     Lacy, J. M., Shelley, J. K., Weathersby, J. H., Daehn, G. S., Johnson, J., & Taber, G. (2010, October). Optimization-based constitutive parameter identification from Sparse Taylor cylinder data. In Proceedings of the 81st shock and vibration symposium. Idaho National Laboratory, US.‏

36.     Deshpande, V. S., & Fleck, N. A. (2000). Isotropic constitutive models for metallic foams. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 48(6), 1253-1283.‏

37.     Shahbeyk, S., Petrinic, N., & Vafai, A. (2007). Numerical modelling of dynamically loaded metal foam-filled square columns. International journal of impact engineering, 34(3), 573-586.‏

38.     Ahmad, Z., & Thambiratnam, D. P. (2009). Dynamic computer simulation and energy absorption of foam-filled conical tubes under axial impact loading.Computers & Structures, 87(3), 186-197.‏

39.     Reyes, A., Hopperstad, O. S., Berstad, T., Hanssen, A. G., & Langseth, M. (2003). Constitutive modeling of aluminum foam including fracture and statistical variation of density. European Journal of Mechanics-A/Solids, 22(6), 815-835.‏

40.     Tarlochan, F., Samer, F., Hamouda, A. M. S., Ramesh, S., & Khalid, K. (2013). Design of thin wall structures for energy absorption applications: Enhancement of crashworthiness due to axial and oblique impact forces. Thin-Walled Structures, 71, 7-17.‏

41.     Jensen, Ø., Langseth, M., & Hopperstad, O. S. (2004). Experimental investigations on the behaviour of short to long square aluminium tubes subjected to axial loading. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 30(8), 973-1003.


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2.

Authors:

Eman Alzahrani

Paper Title:

Fabrication of Monolithic Silica Microchip for Efficient DNA Purification

Abstract: The demand for high purity deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is still increasing. The aim of this work is to fabricate a microchip that has the ability to preconcentrate DNA from biological samples with a high extraction efficiency compared to commercial DNA extraction kits. This was achieved by fabrication of monolithic materials, followed by placing the monolithic silica disk inside the extraction chamber of the polycarbonate microchip. The formation of the mesopores on the silica skeleton was achieved by treating the monolithic silica rod, using different concentrations of aqueous ammonia solution, mainly 0M, 1M, 5M, and 7M, while all other parameters involved in the fabrication of the monolithic silica rods were kept identical. The fabricated materials were studied using EDAX analysis, TEM analysis, and the SEM analysis. Based on the results, 5 M ammonia solution was chosen for optimisation of fabrication of silica-based monolith. Moreover, the benefit of integrating solid-phase nucleic acid extraction techniques into a microfluidic system was to get highly efficient isolation of target analytes due to beneficial surface area characteristics. In this study, isolation of nucleic acids from mouse liver was achieved using a silica-based monolith, onto which nucleic acids were adsorbed onto a solid support; the residual biological matrix and any exogenous contaminants were then removed by washing the monolithic materials with 80% ethanol, and finally the purified DNA was eluted from the microchip using 200 µL of 10 mM tris-EDTA buffer solution (pH 8.5). The data showed that the UV absorption ratio of A260/A230 was 1.75±0.05 and the absorbance ratio of A260/A280 was 1.70±0.04 for the fabricated microchip, showing a good degree of purity. It would be interesting to investigate the use of the fabricated microchip for purification of DNA from forensic samples.

Keywords:
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA); extraction method; monolithic materials; polycarbonate microchip; sol-gel method. 

References:

1.   Bieber, F.R., Science and technology of forensic DNA profiling: current use and future directions. DNA and the Criminal Justice System: The Technology of Justice, 2004: p. 23-62.
2.   Urthaler, J., et al., Application of monoliths for plasmid DNA purification: development and transfer to production. Journal of Chromatography A, 2005. 1065(1): p. 93-106.

3.   Paegel, B.M., R.G. Blazej, and R.A. Mathies, Microfluidic devices for DNA sequencing: sample preparation and electrophoretic analysis. Current opinion in biotechnology, 2003. 14(1): p. 42-50.

4.  Butler, J.M., Forensic DNA typing: biology, technology, and genetics of STR markers. 2005: Academic Press.

5.   Kashkary, L., et al., Improved DNA extraction efficiency from low level cell numbers using a silica monolith based micro fluidic device. Analytica chimica acta, 2012. 750: p. 127-131.

6.  Shaw, K.J., et al., The use of carrier RNA to enhance DNA extraction from microfluidic-based silica monoliths. Analytica chimica acta, 2009. 652(1): p. 231-233.

7.   Auroux, P., et al., Miniaturised nucleic acid analysis. Lab on a Chip, 2004. 4(6): p. 534-546.

8.   Freire-Aradas, A., et al., A new SNP assay for identification of highly degraded human DNA. Forensic Science International: Genetics, 2012. 6(3): p. 341-349.

9.   Nováková, L. and H. Vlčková, A review of current trends and advances in modern bio-analytical methods: Chromatography and sample preparation. Analytica Chimica Acta, 2009. 656(1): p. 8-35.

10.  Żwir-Ferenc, A. and M. Biziuk, Solid phase extraction technique–trends, opportunities and applications. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 2006. 15(5): p. 677-690.

11.  Sabik, H., R. Jeannot, and B. Rondeau, Multiresidue methods using solid-phase extraction techniques for monitoring priority pesticides, including triazines and degradation products, in ground and surface waters. Journal of Chromatography A, 2000. 885(1): p. 217-236.

12.  Vas, G. and K. Vekey, Solidphase microextraction: a powerful sample preparation tool prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Journal of mass spectrometry, 2004. 39(3): p. 233-254.

13.   Alzahrani, E. and K. Welham, Fabrication of an octadecylated silica monolith inside a glass microchip for protein enrichment. Analyst, 2012. 137(20): p. 4751-4759.

14.   Alzahrani, E. and K. Welham, Design and evaluation of synthetic silica-based monolithic materials in shrinkable tube for efficient protein extraction. Analyst, 2011. 136(20): p. 4321-4327.

15.  Alzahrani, E. and K. Welham, Fabrication of a TCEP-immobilised monolithic silica microchip for reduction of disulphide bonds in proteins. Analytical Methods, 2014. 6(2): p. 558-568.

16.  Simpson, N.J., Solid-phase extraction: principles, techniques, and applications. 2000: CRC Press.

17.   Moein, M.M., et al., Solid phase microextraction and related techniques for drugs in biological samples. Journal of analytical methods in chemistry, 2014. 2014(1): p. 1-24.

18.  Tennikova, T.B. and F. Svec, High-performance membrane chromatography: highly efficient separation method for proteins in ion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction and reversed-phase modes. Journal of Chromatography A, 1993. 646(2): p. 279-288.

19.  Svec, F. and J.M. Frechet, Modified poly (glycidyl metharylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) continuous rod columns for preparative-scale ion-exchange chromatography of proteins. Journal of Chromatography A, 1995. 702(1): p. 89-95.

20.  Zöchling, A., et al., Mass transfer characteristics of plasmids in monoliths. Journal of separation science, 2004. 27(10): p. 819-827.

21.  Štrancar, A., et al., Application of compact porous disks for fast separations of biopolymers and in-process control in biotechnology. Analytical chemistry, 1996. 68(19): p. 3483-3488.

22.  Podgornik, A., et al., Construction of large-volume monolithic columns. Analytical chemistry, 2000. 72(22): p. 5693-5699.

23. Josic, D., A. Buchacher, and A. Jungbauer, Monoliths as stationary phases for separation of proteins and polynucleotides and enzymatic conversion. Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications, 2001. 752(2): p. 191-205.

24.  Plieva, F.M., et al., Characterization of polyacrylamide based monolithic columns. Journal of separation science, 2004. 27(10): p. 828-836.

25.  Svec, F. and J.M. Fréchet, Continuous rods of macroporous polymer as high-performance liquid chromatography separation media. Analytical Chemistry, 1992. 64(7): p. 820-822.

26.  Svec, F. and A.A. Kurganov, Less common applications of monoliths: III. Gas chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 2008. 1184(1): p. 281-295.

27.  Wang, S., et al., A low-density DNA microchip for the detection of (anti-) estrogenic compounds and their relative potencies. Analytical biochemistry, 2013. 435(1): p. 83-92.

28.  Nakagawa, T., et al., Fabrication of amino silane-coated microchip for DNA extraction from whole blood. Journal of biotechnology, 2005. 116(2): p. 105-111.

29. Lion, N., et al., Microfluidic systems in proteomics. Electrophoresis, 2003. 24(21): p. 3533-3562.

30.Yang, Y., et al., Coupling onchip solidphase extraction to electrospray mass spectrometry through an integrated electrospray tip. Electrophoresis, 2005. 26(19): p. 3622-3630.

31.  Erickson, D. and D. Li, Integrated microfluidic devices. Analytica Chimica Acta, 2004. 507(1): p. 11-26.

32. Nakanishi, K. and N. Tanaka, Sol–gel with phase separation. Hierarchically porous materials optimized for high-performance liquid chromatography separations. Accounts of chemical research, 2007. 40(9): p. 863-873.

33.  Nakanishi, K., Pore structure control of silica gels based on phase separation. Journal of Porous Materials, 1997. 4(2): p. 67-112.

34.  Alzahrani, E. and K. Welham, Preconcentration of milk proteins using octadecylated monolithic silica microchip. Analytica chimica acta, 2013. 798: p. 40-47.


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3.

Authors:

Neelam Hazoor Zaidi

Paper Title:

Synthesis and Characterization of Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Photoluminescence and Size Tunability

Abstract: Semiconductor nanoparticles are presently of great interest for their practical applications such as zero-dimensional quantum confined materials and for their applications in optoelectronics and photonics. The optical properties get modified dramatically due to the confinement of charge carriers within the nanoparticles. Similar to the effects of charge carriers on optical properties, confinement of optical and acoustic phonons leads to interesting changes in the phonon spectra. In the present work, we have synthesized nanoparticles of CdSe using thermal decomposition technique. Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM), Absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy have been used for characterization. Under room temperature condition highly luminescent particles emit in visible region, can be synthesized. Broadening of this photoluminescence spectra is due to the defects such as vacancies, which are probably located close to the surface in case of nanoparticles.

Keywords:
Nanoparticles, optical properties, photoluminescence.


References:

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9.        Y. S. Wang.; P. John Thomas.; P. O’Brien ; J. Phys. Chem. 2006, 110, 21412.

10.     Gaponenko S V.; Optical properties of semi conductor nanocrystals. Cambridge University Press,Cambridge(UK),1998.


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4.

Authors:

G. N. Rameshaiah, Y. K. Suneetha

Paper Title:

Enzymatic Depolymerization of Nano Chitin Particles into N-Acetylglucosamine

Abstract: Chitin is a crystalline polysaccharide widely spread in nature with three structures: alpha, beta and gamma chitins. Chitin is gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. Enzymatic depolymerisation of chitin to produce oligomers was carried out using the filamentous fungi Trichoderma harzianum (MTCC 3928). The bioprocess offers many advantages and helps to overcome the limitations of conventional chemical treatment which is presently used in industries. Chitin is treated with hydrochloric acid for chitin demineralization and to obtain colloidal nano size particles. Production of N-acetyl glucosamine was studied as a function of acid washed chitin in the particle size range of 74-125μm, pH of the broth media, and concentration of chitin and trace nutrients. N-acetylglucosamine yield was highest with particles of 125 µm size at solution pH5 and when incubated at 34 for 120 h in an orbital shaker with 160 revolutions per minute. Higher yield was obtained with initial chitin concentration of 10 g/L and lowered yield may be due to diffusion resistances and substrate inhibition at other concentrations. Trace nutrient concentration has an impact on both enzyme activity and product yield.

Keywords:
Trichoderma harzianum, Chitin, N-acetylglucosamine.


References:

1.        Muzzarelli, RAA. Chitin. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1977.
2.        Muzzarelli, RAA, Ilari P, Tarsi R, Dubini B, Xia W. Chitosan from Absidiacoerulea. CarbohydrPolym 1994;25:45–50.

3.        Subasinghe S. The development of crustacean and mollusc industries for chitin and chitosan resources. In: Zakaria MB, Wan Muda WM, Abdullah MP, editors. Chitin and Chitosan. Malaysia: PenerbitUniversitiKebangsaan, 1995. p. 27–34.

4.        Willem F Stevens, “Production of Chitin and Chitosan: Refinement and Sustainability of Chemical and Biological Processing”,

5.        Cirano J. Ulhoa and John F. Peberdy “Regulation of chitinase synthesis in Trichoderma harzianum.”,J. Gen. Microbiol.,1991,2163-2169,137.

6.        Kapat A, S K Rakshit, Panda T , “ Parameter optimization of chitin hydrolysis by Trichoderma harzianum chitinase under assay conditions”, Bioprocess Engineering 14(1996) 275-279

7.        Laura Ramirez-Coutino, Maria del Carmen Marin-Cervantes, Sergio Huerta, Sergio Revah, Keiko Shirai, Enzymatic hydrolysis of chitin in the production of oligosaccharides using Lecanicillium fungicola chitinases, Process Biochemistry 41 (2006) 1106–1110

8.        Patil R.S., Ghormade V., Deshpande M.V., Chitinolytic enzymes: an exploration, Enzyme Microb. Technol.,1999, 473–483,26.

9.        Gooday GW. Diversity of roles for chitinases in nature. In: Zakaria MB, Wan Muda WM, Abdullah MP, editors. Chitin and Chitosan. Malaysia: PenerbitUniversitiKebangsaan, 1995. p. 191–202.

10.     Zikakis JP. Chitinolytic enzymes and their applications. In: Whitaker JR, Sonnet PE, editors. Biocatalysts in Agricultural Biotechnology, ACS Symposium Series 389. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1989. p. 116–26.

11.     Kombrink E, Somssich IE. Defense responses of plants to pathogens. Adv Bot Res 1995;21:2–34.

12.     Flach J, Pilet P-E, Jolles P. What’s new in chitinase research.Experientia 1992;48:701–16.

13.     Kramer KJ, Muthukrishnan S. Insect chitinases: molecular biology and potential use as biopesticides. Insect BiochemMolBiol 1997; 27:887–900.

14.     Sahai AS, Manocha MS. Chitinases of fungi and plants: their involvement in morphogenesis and host-parasite interaction. FEMSMicrobiol Rev 1993;11:317–38.

15.     Felse, P. A. , and Panda, T., Studies on applications of chitin and its derivatives , J. Bioprocess engg. , 20 (1999)505-512

16.     Miller, G. L., Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar, Anal. Chem. 1959, 31, 426-428

17.     Kapat A, S K Rakshit, Panda T , “ Parameter optimization of chitin hydrolysis by Trichoderma harzianum chitinase under assay conditions”, Bioprocess Engineering 14(1996) 275-279

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19.     AshwiniNarasimhan, Srividyashivakumar. Eur. J. Exp. Biol., 2012, 2(4), 861-865.

20.     Miller, G. L., Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar, Anal. Chem. 1959, 31, 426-428

21.     Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L., and Randall, R.J. (1951) J.Biol.Chem 193: 265.

22.     K. Burton, “A study of the conditions and mechanism of the diphenylamine reaction for the colorimetric estimation of deoxyribonucleic acid,” The Biochemical Journal, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 315–323, 1956


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