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Exploring Innovation| ISSN:2347-6389(Online)| Reg. No.:15318/BPL/13| Published by BEIESP| Impact Factor:3.76
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Volume-1, Issue-12 November 18, 2014
21
Volume-1, Issue-12 November 18, 2014
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S. No

Volume-1 Issue-12, November 2014, ISSN: 2347-6389 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.

Page No.

1.

Authors:

Krishnadasan V. B, N. K. Mohammed Sajid, K. A. Shafi

Paper Title:

Performance Analysis of a Triple Fluid Vapor Absorption System using Engine Exhaust Gas

Abstract: The air conditioning units currently used in road transport vehicles are predominantly of the vapour compression refrigeration (VCR) type. In such a unit, the compressor requires an input of energy in the form of work. In order to obtain refrigeration, possibility of triple fluid vapour absorption refrigeration (VAR) systems utilizing waste heat from the engine exhaust gas has been investigated. This work presents an experimental study of a triple fluid vapour absorption refrigeration system using the exhaust of an internal combustion engine as energy source. From the study, it has been concluded that engine exhaust gas can be used as a power source for a vapour absorption system. When load on the engine increases, power availability in the generator increases and cooling capacity of the system increases but COP of the system reduces.

Keywords:
Absorption refrigeration system, triple fluid system, engine exhaust.


References:

1.   Valerie H. Johnson. Fuel Used for Vehicle Air Conditioning: A State-by-State Thermal Comfort-Based Approach.
2.   Srikhirin P, Aphornratana S, Chungpaibulpatana S. A review of absorption refrigeration technologies. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2001;5(4): 343–72.

3.   Horuz I. An alternative road transport refrigeration. Tr. J. of Engineering and Environmental Science 1998;22:211-222.

4.  Horuz I. A comparison between ammonia–water and water–lithium bromide solutions in vapor absorption refrigeration systems. Int Commun Heat Mass Transfer 1998;25(5):711–21.

5.   Shah A. A proposed model for utilizing exhaust heat to run automobile air-conditioner. The 2nd Joint International Conference on Sustainable Energy and Environment 2006.

6.  Vicatos G, Gryzagoridis J, Wang S. A car air-conditioning system based on an absorption refrigeration cycle using energy from exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa 2008;19(4).

7.   Manzela AA, Hanriot SM, Gomez LC, Sodre JR. Using engine exhaust gas as energy source for an absorption refrigeration system. Applied Energy 2010;87:1141–1148.

8.   AlQdah KS. Performance and evaluation of aqua ammonia auto air conditioner system using exhaust waste energy. Energy Procedia 2011; 6:467–476.


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2.

Authors:

Kavitha Jaba Malar R, Joseph Raj V

Paper Title:

Ear Recognition using Feature Fuzzy Matching

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel method, a Fuzzy Feature Match (FFM) based on a triangle feature set to match the ear. The ear is represented by the fuzzy feature set. The fuzzy features set similarity is used to analyze the similarity among ears. Accordingly, a similarity vector pair is defined to illustrate the similarities between two ears.  The FFM method shows the similarity vector pair to a normalized value which quantifies the overall image to image similarity. The algorithm has been evaluated with Computer Education and Training Society (CETS) students and staff members’ ear database. Experimental results confirm that the proposed FFM based on the triangle feature set is a reliable and effective algorithm for ear matching.

Keywords:
Extraction, Ear recognition, Fuzzy features, Matching, Similarities, Triangularization.

References:
1.  Samuel Adebayo Daramola, Oladejo Daniel  , Automatic  Ear Recognition System using Back propagation Neural  Network, International Journal of Video and Image processing and Network Security ,Vol.11, No.1, Feb 2011.
2.        David J Hurley, Mark S Nixon, John N.Cartex, Force Field Feature Extraction for Ear Biometrics, Computer Vision and Image Understanding, Vol.98,2005, pp. 491-512.

3.        Nazmeen Bibi Boodoo, R.K Subramanian, Robust Multi-biometric Recognition using Face and Ear Images, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security Vol.6, No.2, 2009.

4.        Dattatray V.Jadhav, Raghunath S.Holambe, Radon and Discrete Cosine Transform Based Feature Extraction and Dimensionality Reduction Approach for Face Recognition, Signal Processing, 88, 2008, pp.2604-2609.

5.        Shrikant Tiwari, Aruni Singh, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Fusion of Ear and Soft biometrics for Recognition of Newborn , Signal and Image Processing: An International Journal , Vol.3, No.3, June 2012.

6.        Changjun Zhou, Xiaopeng Wei, Qiang Zhang, Xi aoyong Fang, Fisher’s linear discriminant  (FLD) and support vector machine (SVM) in non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) residual space for face recognition, Optica Application , Vol.40,No.3, 2010, pp.693-704.

7.        Haiyan Xu, The Research of Ear Recognition Based on Gabor Wavelets and Support Vector Machine Classification, Information Technology Journal, Vol. 11, No.11, 2012, pp.1626-1631.

8.        Surya Prakash, Phalguni Gupta, An efficient ear recognition technique invariant to illumination and pose, Journal of Telecommunication Systems, 2011.

9.        Prof.Kshirsagar V.P,Baviskar M.R, Gaikwad M.E,Face Recognition using Eigen Faces ,IEEE International conference on Computer Research and Development, ICCRD, March 2011.

10.     William T.Freema, Edward H.Adelson, The Design and use of Steerable Filters,IEEE, Transactions on Pattern  Analysis and  Machine Intelligence , Vol.13, No.9, Sept 1991.

11.     Ali Hussein Ali Al-Tim emy, A Robust Algorithm for Ear Recognition System based on Self Organization Maps, 1st Regional Conference of Eng. Sci. NUCEJ special issue, Vol.11, No.2, April 2007.

12.     R. Kavitha Jaba Malar and V. Joseph Raj, Fingerprint Verification Using Fuzzy Feature Matching, Conference Record, International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology, Teerthanker Mahaveer University,2012.


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3.

Authors:

Ijemaru Gerald Kelechi, Oleka Emmanuel Uchendu, Ngharamike Ericmoore Tochukwu, Njokuocha Kenneth Ikechukwu, Udunwa Augustine Ikenna

Paper Title:

Inter-Cell Interference Mitigation Techniques in a Heterogeneous LTE-Advanced Access Network

Abstract: As LTE (Long Term Evolution) networks proliferate and network traffic increases, LTE operators face the problem of interference. Because LTE spectrum is limited, most operators deploy single frequency networks to maximize capacity. However, while single frequency networks increase spectral efficiency, they also increase the potential for interference. Interference is highly unpredictable and depends on various factors such as channel conditions, traffic from other terminal and noise. Interference occurs between various equipment in a heterogeneous LTE-A access network and is a threat to the technology of wireless network. Hence, this research work seeks to analyze the various techniques for combating interference in LTE–Advanced access network per unit area using different combination of methods. Network-based interference mitigation solutions are not yet available to address the interference problems of today’s LTE networks. However, Terminal-based interference solutions are available today as they offer operators a powerful weapon to combat interference. The introduction of Femtocell to users has also made interference mitigation scheme achievable. The Femtocell interference mitigation technique mitigates the interference between network components such as Macro-cell and Femtocell in a heterogeneous LTE-A access network. The work also emphasizes the importance of heterogeneous network in a wireless communication and the basic sources of interference and their mitigation techniques in this kind of network. The implementation of all the suggested mitigation techniques and power control formula as explained in this work has been proposed to target the performance of heterogeneous LTE-Advanced access network. This, as a result, will improve the signal quality of the received signal, and end users will experience higher throughput and better service continuity, and LTE operators will improve coverage and increase the capacity of their networks.

Keywords:
Interference Mitigation, Heterogeneous Network, LTE, Femtocell, Picocell, Simulation.


References:

1.  Ijemaru, G.K., Udunwa, A., Ngharamike, E., and Oleka, E. (2014) “Evaluating the Challenging Issues in the Security of Wireless Communication Networks in Nigeria.” International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE). Vol. 3 (12).
2.   Kim, K. (2005) “Interference Mitigation in Wireless Communication.” Georgia Institute of Technology

3.   Jinfei, S. (2009) “Mitigating Interference between LTE and 2G/3G Network.” [online] available from http://www.huawei.com/en/static/HW-079472.pdf

4.   Kummithe, R. (2012) Interference Mitigation in 4G LTE-A Heterogeneous Network.  University of Texas

5.  Hassan, M., Kamarudin, L., and Zakaria, A. (2013) “Mitigating Interference in a Heterogeneous Wireless Network using Channel Selection.” Special Issue for International Conference of Advanced Materials Engineering and Technology

6. Sequans Communications (2012) Mitigating Interference in LTE Networks. [Online] available from http://www.eet-china.com/STATIC/PDF/201205/EECOL_2012May10_RFD_NT_04.pdf?%20SOURCES=DOWNLOAD

7.    Lopez-Perez, D., et al. (2011) Enhanced Inter-cell Interference Coordination Challenges in Heterogeneous Networks.

8.    Khandekar, A., Bhushan, N., Tingfang. J., and Vanghi, V. (2010) “LTE-Advanced: Heterogeneous Networks.” European Wireless Conference

9.    Zhang, J. (2011) “Inter-cell Interference Control in Heterogeneous Access Networks.” The University of Sheffield UK, Centre for Wireless Network Design.

10.  Claussen, H. (2008) “An Overview of the Femtocell Concept.” Bell Labs Technical Journal, Vol. 13 (1)

11.  Bharucha, Z. (2012) LTE/LTE-A Interference Coordination for Femtocells.


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4.

Authors:

Hemant Kumar Gupta, Ghanshyam Das Agrawal, Jyotirmay Mathur

Paper Title:

Experimental Evaluation on the Effect of Nan fluid Concentration on the Performance of Direct Absorption Solar Collector

Abstract: In this study, a direct absorption solar collector (DASC) working on volumetric absorption principle is developed to perform experimental study for evaluating the effects of different Al2O3-H2O nanofluid concentration. Experimentation was carried using four different concentrations of 20 nm size Al2O3 nanoparticles, 10 ppm, 50 ppm and 100 ppm. ASHRAE standard 93-86 was followed for calculation of instantaneous efficiency of solar collector. Use of nanofluid as working fluid improves the optical and thermo physical properties that result into an increase in the performance of the collector. Improvement in efficiency of solar collector has been recorded in all three cases of using nanofluids in place of water. Optical efficiency enhancement of 22.1%, 39.6% and 24.6% has been observed for 10 ppm, 50 ppm and 100 ppm concentration respectively.

Keywords:
Direct absorption solar collector; Al2O3-water nanofluid; Concentration, Collector testing; Performance enhancement. 

References:

1.        J.E. Pacheco, Demonstration of solar-generated electricity on demand: the solar two project, J. Solar Energ. Eng. Trans. ASME 123 (1) (2001) 5.
2.        Minardi, J. E., and Chunag, H. N., 1975, “Performance of a Black Liquid Flat-Plate Solar Collector,” Sol. Energy, 17, pp. 179–183.

3.        Bertocchi, R., Karni, J., and Kribus, A., 2004, “Experimental Evaluation of a Non-Isothermal High Temperature Solar Particle Receiver,” Energy, 29, pp. 687–700.  

4.        T.P. Otanicar, P.E. Phelan, J.S. Golden, Optical properties of liquids for direct absorption solar thermal energy systems, Solar Energ. 83 (7) (2009) 969–977.

5.        X. Q. Wang and A. S. Majumdar, “ Heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids, a review,” Int. J. Therm. Sci. 46, 1,2007.

6.        B.C. Pak, I.Y. Cho, Hydrodynamic and heat transfer study of dispersed fluids with sub-micron metallic oxide particles, Exp. Heat Transfer 11 (1998) 151–170.

7.        Y. Xuan, Q. Li, Heat transfer enhancement of nanofluids, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 21 (1) (2000) 58–64.

8.        P. Keblinski, S.R. Phillpot, S.U.S. Choi, J.A. Eastman, Mechanisms of heat flow in suspensions of nano-sized particles (nanofluids), Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 45 (4) (2002) 855–863.

9.        J. Koo, C. Kleinstreuer, Impact analysis of nanoparticle motion mechanisms on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 32 (9) (2005) 1111–1118.

10.     J. Buongiorno, Convective transport in nanofluids, J. Heat Transfer 128 (3) (2006) 240–251.

11.     Masuda H, Ebata A, Teramae K, Hishinuma N. Alteration of thermal conductivity and viscosity of liquid by dispersing ultra-fine particles (dispersion of g-Al2O3, SiO2 and TiO2 ultra-fine particles). Netsu Bussei (Japan) 1993;7:227-33.

12.     A. Grimm, Powdered aluminum-containing heat transfer fluids, German Patent DE 4131516 A1 (1993).

13.     Mu LJ, Zhu QZ, Si LL: Radiative properties of nanofluids and performance of a direct solar absorber using nanofluids. 2nd ASME Micro/Nanoscale Heat & Mass Transfer International Conference 2010, 1:549-553.

14.     Natarajan E, Sathish R. Role of nanofluids in solar water heater. Int J Adv Manuf Technol; 2009. doi:10.1007/s00170-008-1876-8.

15.     H. Tyagi, P. Phelan, R. Prasher, Predicted efficiency of a low-temperature nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collector, J. Solar Energ. Eng. 131 (4) (2009) 1–7.

16.     T.P. Otanicar, P.E. Phelan, R.S. Prasher, G. Rosengarten, R.A. Taylor, Nanofluidbased direct absorption solar collector, J. Renew. Sust. Energ. 2 (033102) (2010) 1–13.

17.     Trisaksri V, Wongwises S (2007) Critical review of heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids. Renew Sustain Energy Rev11:512–523.

18.     Liu J, Rinzler AG, Dai HJ, Hafner JH, Bradley RK, Boul PJ, et al. Fullerene pipes. Science 1998;280:1253e6.

19.     Li XF, Zhu DS, Wang XJ. Evaluation on dispersion behavior of the aqueous copper nano suspensions. J Colloid Interface Sci 2007;310:456e63.

20.     ASHRAE Standard 86-93. Methods of testing to determine the thermal performance of solar collectors; 1986. Atlanta, GA, USA.

21.     Zhang X, Gu H, Fujii M. Effective thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of nanofluids containing spherical and cylindrical nanoparticles. J Appl Phys 2006; 100:044325.


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